# Dips

Graphical and Statistical Analysis of Orientation Data

**Stereographic Projection Analysis**

Designed for interactive analysis of orientation based geological data. Visualize orientation vectors, density contours, planes, intersections, and traverses. Draw user-defined planes, sets, and annotative tools.

**Jointing Analysis**

Three built-in analysis options: Joint Spacing to calculate true or apparent spacing between joints within a set, RQD Analysis for assessing Rock Quality Designation, and Joint Frequency for counting the occurrence of joints along each 1D distance interval, on a linear or borehole traverse.

# Features in Dips

**Technical Specifications**

**File Output**

- Export to Excel
- JTDIST utility program—define up to five synthetic joint sets, generate a Dips file
- Save processed file

**Filtering / Attribute Analysis**

- Create charts or symbolic pole plots based on any data column in the file
- Edit symbols, create symbol master list
- Filter by set
- Histogram, line or pie charts
- Plot qualitative/quantitative data
- Powerful database query, easily create data subsets

**Input Data**

- Curved borehole analysis—input collar and survey files
- Declination for magnetic/azimuth correction
- Distance column
- Integrated spreadsheet
- Linear/planar orientation data
- Quantity column for multiple identical data entries
- Unlimited number of columns for additional data

**Jointing Analysis**

- Joint Frequency (unweighted or weighted)
- Joint Set Spacing (true spacing or apparent spacing)
- Metric or Imperial units
- Plot selected traverses or all traverses
- RQD Analysis (discrete or moving interval)

**Kinematic Analysis**

- Apply declination to slope dip direction
- Apply Terzaghi weighting to pole count
- Direct toppling
- Export results to Excel
- Flexural toppling
- Highlight critical zones
- Highlight slope plane on stereonet
- Lateral limits
- Planar sliding
- Poles, dip vectors, intersections
- Kinematic sensitivity analysis: sensitivity plots of slope dip, dip direction, friction angle, lateral limits, for planar sliding, wedge sliding, toppling analysis
- Wedge sliding

**Orientation Formats**

- Dip/Dip direction
- Multiple formats in one file using traverses
- Oriented core (alpha/beta)
- Strike/Dip (right or left hand rule for strike)
- Trend/Plunge (linear data)

**Projections**

- Equal angle, equal area
- Upper/lower hemisphere

**Statistical Analysis**

- Best fit plane through poles (fold analysis)
- Confidence and variability cones
- Fisher distributions for contour plots
- Fuzzy cluster analysis for automatic detection of joint sets
- Global mean vector
- Mean vector calculation
- Statistics listed in Info Viewer
- User-defined set windows for orientation (pole) clusters

**Stereonet Plots**

- 3D stereosphere
- Contour arbitrary data on stereonet
- Contour plot
- Customize display options
- Overlay of contours, poles, planes, intersections
- Planes plot
- Pole or dip vector mode
- Pole plot
- Plot traverse orientations on stereonet
- Rosette plot
- Scatter plot
- Symbolic plot
- View intersections

**Stereonet Toolkit**

- Add planes (rubber plane for interactive data analysis)
- Data rotation about arbitrary axis
- Daylight envelopes for sliding analysis in slope design
- Drawing tools, text annotations
- Intersection calculator
- Onscreen angle measurement
- Onscreen pole identification
- Plot lineations on planes
- Polar/equatorial grid overlay
- Small circles about any axis (e.g. friction circles, toppling bounds)
- User-defined trend/strike reference line

**Traverses**

- Bias correction (Terzaghi weighting)
- Borehole (oriented core)
- Clinorule
- Curved borehole (oriented core)
- Curved borehole (televiewer)
- Linear (e.g. scanline)
- Linear borehole (televiewer)
- Planar (e.g. wall map)

**Viewing Options**

- Current view state saved with file
- Global undo/redo
- Improved printing with customizable headers and footers
- Interactive graphical editing
- Save plots to .bmp, .jpg, .metafile, .png, .gif
- Sidebar for quick access to display

# Dips across Applications

Identify critical joint sets, folds and foliations in the rock structure using cluster analysis, fold analysis, and vector density contours.

Quantify the rockmass based on joint spacing, joint frequency, and RQD analysis collected along boreholes, scanlines, and wall mappings.

Identify joint sets from discontinuity clusters with the aid of vector density contour visuals. Obtain mean set orientations and set statistics (i.e., Fisher K, Variability Limit, Confidence Limit) for underground wedge analysis.

Define kinematic properties of the slope and identify critical planes and intersections for a variety of rock slope failure modes: Planar Sliding, Wedge Sliding, Direct Toppling, Flexural Toppling.

# Explore the latest features in Dips

Create multiple data filter queries in the same Dips file, display dynamically filtered data and analysis results in any view (e.g., Grid Data, 2D Stereonet Plot, 3D Stereonet, Chart). Quickly create a new Dips file with a selected filter.

Vary kinematic properties (slope dip, slope dip direction, friction angle, lateral limits) when analyzing sliding and toppling failure modes, to visualize their effects on the number of kinematically critical vectors and intersections.

The View Templates feature allows you to efficiently save and load custom Plot Options and Display Settings to and from any Stereonet Plot View.

to life with the visualization of test progress and the evolution of hardening/softening rules in the constitutive models.

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